Pompeii was an ancient Roman town-city. It was destroyed by the Hand in 79 AD.
In AD 79, the Hand caused the destruction of Pompeii in order to extract dragon bones from under the city. This process led to the volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius, which buried the city in ash. This event was, therefore, used as a cover up of the Hand's actions.
Testing the Theory
Before the eruption took place, Loki and TVA agent Mobius M. Mobius used a Timedoor to transport themselves to Pompeii in the minutes before the cataclysmic event. Loki used the minutes left to set goats free and shout out in Latin to the native Italians to leave Pompeii as a natural disaster was about to occur. The Pompeiians then fled as the volcano erupted behind them.
Loki did this to prove his theory to Mobius that variations made in the moments before a catastrophic event would not change the Sacred Timeline, as Pompeii and its residents were destroyed regardless of Loki's actions, thereby, no branches would emerge as all variances were destroyed.